The time has come for ABC Phase Two: help us campaign for justice and transparency in UK rail!

After a year of hard work and dedication to the #SouthernFail cause; ABC and its 2,000 financial backers are finally starting to see their efforts bear fruit! On 29th June, we pulled off the biggest democratic check on Chris Grayling yet; in the form of a court decision that forced the DfT to finally decide the issue of Force Majeure – 16 months after their deliberations began.

The resulting £13.4 million fine was enough to satisfy the Judge’s deadline of 13th June, meaning that our judicial review cannot go forward. This money is now being channeled back into Southern Rail in the form of yet another remedial plan – and there is certainly irony in the fact that £5 million of the ‘fine’ is now being used to fund extra staff on Southern Rail, when their well-known understaffing model was a major cause of the service’s collapse in the first place.

We believe that this reinvestment of Govia’s ‘fine’ is nothing more than an attempt to re-balance contract specifications that were so catastrophically conceived that they were bound to fail from the very start. In the words of a recent article in Railway Magazine:

“…the Department for Transport’s desire to merge the Thameslink, Southern and Gatwick Express operations into the biggest rail franchise in history has instead simply created a monster – one that is now out of control.”

There is so much more to do in unravelling the causes of this ongoing rail crisis; and ABC plans to be bigger, bolder and more influential than ever in the next phase of building our non-profit organisation – dedicated to the cause of justice and transparency in all UK transport policy.

We are still crowdfunding to pay our legal fees, survive bankruptcy by the DfT, and fund further legal investigations into: 1) the full Southern Rail franchise agreement; and 2) an Equality Act challenge on driver-only-operated trains. We really need to hit £30,000 in the next 20 days – all of which will go into our legal fighting fund to help us take new actions forward. Please donate whatever you can!

There is so much more to do…

This has been a David vs Goliath battle from the start. Our crowdfunder of September 2016 raised £26,000 – which has been our total legal resource for almost a year. The vast majority of all legal and publicity work has been done on a voluntary and skill-sharing basis among a close network of lawyers, commuter researchers and citizen journalists. To date, ABC has received just one £5,000 grant (from the Foundation of Integrated Transport) – and yet, we have already achieved more than anyone thought possible.

The ABC ‘project’ has never been just about the judicial review case. Our legal action instead formed a backbone to extensive legal, lobbying, publicity and research efforts that will continue exactly as before – and in fact, will only get bigger. We now have an excellent platform from which to promote change in UK transport policy and we intend to use it.

Our innovative “digital DIY” techniques and unique experiments with crowd-sourced investigative journalism have already changed the face of transport campaigning, and this is just the start. What our critics do not realise is that we’ve not only been campaigning on Southern Rail for a year – we’ve also been creating a radical business plan; one that we can’t wait to implement in the creation of “ABC 2.0”. Through collaborative work and grass roots organising, we are now set to take our campaigning model all over the country – at a time when rail passengers have never needed it more.

We urgently need to keep our independence, and continue our work:

In the last two months, we have had some of our biggest successes yet. We have published exclusives on: 1) urgent health and safety concerns at Victoria station; 2) information from the Gibb report, which possibly lead to its release; 3) an RMT offer (declined by GTR) that represented their biggest compromise yet; and most controversially of all: 4) a two-year buried Rail Delivery Group report on disabled access, which strongly argues for keeping the conductor on the train.

All of these issues (and many more) are still being investigated by ABC, and there is much work to do in fully uncovering the truth behind them. This is the reason for our appeal – we must urgently restore our legal fighting fund if we are to have adequate legal support and resources to continue our work.

Every contribution makes a difference – so please donate the price of a train ticket today, and ask a fellow commuter to do the same! Our future is in your hands, and we are forever grateful for the help and support from our community – without it, none of this would have been possible.

We aim to hit £30,000 by 16th August! Please help us by donating here.

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook for all the latest news – and more exclusive releases that the government and rail industry don’t want you to see!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We’ve achieved our biggest victory yet… but will ABC survive?

With our legal decision last month, we have finally managed to force a decision on Southern Rail’s contractual breaches. But our work is far from done, and ABC’s survival is now under serious threat…

We had some very big news today – a decision has been announced on some of Southern Rail’s contractual breaches (force majeure); bringing the Department for Transport’s 14 months of deliberation finally to an end. At the same time, ABC is facing its biggest threat yet…

The DfT is now coming at us for costs – to the tune of £17,278. If we cannot pay by 28th July, our co-directors will have to fold ABC Ltd. immediately; and furthermore will not be able to take on further judicial review actions whether as a group or as individuals.

Please help us and donate whatever you can afford – so that ABC can go on to fight further, and bigger battles!

Our lawyers are still in discussion with the DfT and are determining whether the Judge’s order was fully satisfied. But, whatever happens, we are sure that the DfT will be willing to satisfy the order enough to prevent our JR going forward. They simply will not risk the level of exposure that a judicial review would bring.

The outcome of today’s news is that we’ve proven that a group of volunteer passengers can indeed have an effect when all other means of representation fail us. With the force majeure decision, we have achieved more than any MP or even the Transport Select Committee has so far.

But, there is so much more to do and we don’t want to give up! We are busy innovating a whole new model of crowd-sourced legal action and investigative journalism, and we are only just getting started. With our recent leaks on disability access, we feel that a further Equality Act challenge (this time on the issue of DOO) would be an almost certain win. Anyone who has been following our campaign will know how regular these assistance failures are, and how distressing for passengers.

Please, please, help us now or we will have to draw the campaign to a conclusion.

We currently have funds of around £13,500 – with only 5 days to go.

If we reach £15,000 – we will be able to pay our lawyers, but ABC will be over.

If we reach £27,000 – we will be able to pay our lawyers, the DfT’s costs, and survive.

If we reach over £27,000 – ever penny will go towards further legal advice so that we can keep making the biggest impact possible in demanding justice and accountability on Southern Rail.

DfT costs letter

 

EXCLUSIVE: ABC presents…The Great Gibb Giveaway! What’s your Magic Loophole Station?!

We’ve discovered discounts and savings for South Coast – London Victoria passengers! Find out how to get yours in this easy ABC guide…

The Gibb report has given us a wealth of material about the failures of ‘system resilience’ on the Southern Rail network – and over the next few weeks, ABC will be following many of these up in depth. However, we wanted to start with an exclusive tip-off that will benefit commuters right here, right now. And so we present the first Magic Loophole Station; a technique inspired by section 3.2 of the Gibb Report, and from which several of our commuter campaigners are already enjoying great savings.

Before proceeding, please note: this is still a work in progress that we invite you to try, and investigate further. We do not guarantee success and all of these methods are to be used at the individual’s sole discretion and responsibility.

Important: we are still urgently raising funds to pay our lawyers for our recent court victory, which has forced Chris Grayling to finally make a decision on Southern Rail’s contractual breaches. There could be no better use for the money saved through the #GreatGibbaway than donating some to help us pay our lawyers!

How to use the Camden Road Magic Loophole:

Inspired by the “fare anomalies and split-ticketing opportunities” highlighted by Chris Gibb in section 3.2 of his report, members of ABC have been looking at other routes and trying to identify similar “Magic Loophole Stations” to the Eastbourne – Aldershot example that Gibb describes.

We have since discovered that Camden Road Station is the “Magic Loophole Station” for South Coast – London Victoria routes, and now invite all our supporters to join the investigation and find similar loopholes for other routes.

GIBBAWAY-FINAL2.jpg

The Camden Road “Magic Loophole” works for:

  • Passengers on the South Coast going to London Victoria
  • All peak day tickets
  • Some off-peak tickets
  • Some walk up fares, e.g. 7 day return tickets (peak and off peak)

The Camden Road “Magic Loophole” won’t work for:

  • Season ticket holders (7 days and upwards) – unfortunately it turns into the same ‘travelcard’ ticket type for both scenarios at that point
  • Anyone travelling from Haywards Heath or further north

The best thing about this technique is that the saving on day return peak tickets will really help whose who are self-employed or part-time – i.e. those who are already penalised most by the current fare system.

These types of passengers will be able to save money on every journey using the “Magic Loophole” technique. ABC members have explicitly asked Southern Rail ticket staff if Victoria is a valid route for Camden Road, and it has been confirmed that it is (i.e. one can take all usual direct peak/off-peak trains and there is no need for this to be specified on the ticket.)

Examples of how much you could save on a peak day ticket:

Worthing: £41.70 instead of £56.70 saving £15 or 26% discount

Eastbourne: £44.20 instead of £60.40 saving £16.20 or 26% discount

Brighton: £43.60 instead of 50.10 saving £6.50 or 13% discount

Lewes: £39.30 instead of £51.10 saving £11.80 or 23% discount

Shoreham: £40.50 instead of £54.20 saving £14.70 or 27% discount

How you can help our investigation:

  1. Write and tell us about your success and any further “Magic Loophole Stations” you uncover. You can email us at contact@associationofbritishcommuters.com, or contact us through Twitter. Please note that we are volunteer-run and extremely busy, so Twitter is always best for a quick response.
  2. Donate to our legal crowdfunder – we need your help more than ever if we are to pay our lawyers for their work on our recent high court decision and keep ABC alive!
  3. Keep following our campaign and thinking outside the box! We must all join together to insist upon a better quality of investigative journalism; and much more action from MPs/Ministers, if we are to ever bring the Southern Rail crisis to a end!

Donate to our legal crowdfunder here.

Follow ABC on Twitter and Facebook for all our news, exposes, and updates!

Please note, The Great Gibbaway was inspired by section 3.2 of the Gibb report:

Gibb 3.2

EXCLUSIVE: Why did GTR refuse this very reasonable offer from the RMT, which guarantees accessibility?

With the media and MPs slower than ever to pick up on the real story – we prove once again that there is a battle over disabled access going on between the unions and Southern Rail. RMT’s latest offer to GTR is published below, for the first time.

Today, we exclusively reveal the most recent proposal made to GTR by the RMT. This “six-month accessibility guarantee” represents a major compromise; where the drivers’ control of the doors is accepted, and an offer is made to finally recognise the OBS role.

Most significantly of all from passengers’ perspective, the RMT’s offer asks the company for a commitment to the same levels of accessibility that were guaranteed as of 21st August 2016. That is to say, it seeks to stop the growing frequency of unstaffed trains running to unstaffed/rural stations; which leave disabled and older people unable to spontaneously travel with the confidence they used to prior to August 2016. It is enormously significant that the number of unstaffed trains is now admitted by Southern to be 2.75% – already a significant shift from the 0.06% that Southern Rail originally claimed in a letter to MPs last year.

The logic, taken to its conclusion, is that this offer represents an attempt to ‘freeze’ Southern Rail at the level of access it provided previous to August 2016. It is hard to understand GTR’s refusal in any other way than it is happy for guarantees regarding accessibility prior to August 2016 to be removed; and that it is happy for its services to become less accessible. When one considers the latest offer made to Aslef alongside this (which contained the weakest solution yet for accessibility), it is hard to avoid the conclusion that Southern Rail are shifting the goalposts still further on disabled access.

Once again, it seems that the loophole that GTR (or whoever is deciding this dispute) is intent on keeping has the purpose of breaking the RMT, and that this is being done quite consciously at the expense of accessibility. Those in doubt may wish to ask the Rail Delivery Group their thoughts on this issue, especially in light of the 2-year buried report on access we leaked on this blog two weeks ago – a report that strongly argues for keeping the conductor guaranteed on trains outside the metro area.

The following document was circulated on Tuesday 4th July during a meeting between the RMT and MPs in the House of Commons. Those who watched the Gibb Report debate later the same day may remember certain MPs arguing that 2.75% of unstaffed trains running to unstaffed stations was, in their view, acceptable. It is now clear that this figure must have come from their morning meeting where the following document was shared. We object strongly to the normalisation of this “provision, criterion or practice”, which represents a clear breach of the Equality Act according to the Rail Delivery Group’s own leaked report!

The following offer was, to the best of our understanding, made to GTR in late April, and immediately refused. Anyone following this situation in depth will see what a reasonable attempt is made here to find a resolution. If such a compromise as a “six month accessibility guarantee” was trialled, we could finally see this dispute come to an end.RMT offer to GTR page 1.pngRMT offer to GTR page 2

EXCLUSIVE: How has the Southern Rail Crisis changed the game for Rail PR?

After our recent high court victory, viral protests, and several exposes of what is really going on behind the scenes; our campaign has given commuters their best platform yet for representation on the Southern Rail crisis.

ABC campaigner Emily Yates spoke to the rail journalist Tom Ingall as part of an in-depth, 8 page feature in this month’s edition of Rail Review. We include a download link for the full PDF below, with thanks to Tom Ingall, Rail Review and Bauer Media.

DOWNLOAD HERE: Rail Review – the role of social media in rail PR

The importance of social media in a David vs Goliath battle

With the unprecedented anger caused by the ongoing Southern Rail crisis, this is not the first time that members of ABC have been made aware that our campaign has caused a serious stir behind the scenes of rail industry (and Department for Transport) public relations.

It now appears that our campaign forms part of what is very much a ‘live discussion’ behind the scenes of the rail industry. In this month’s Rail Review, Tom Ingall takes a comprehensive look at the situation and asks what rail public relations can learn from our campaign.

Read in the context of our recent court decision (which forces Chris Grayling to finally act on Southern Rail’s contractual breaches), it is important to note that social media has also played a key part in the crowd-funding and crowd-sourced research behind our legal case. The fact that we are the one body to achieve what MPs and even the Transport Select Committee could not (a decision on Force Majeure) means there is no more room for anyone in the rail industry to diminish the seriousness of our campaign simply because of the social media techniques we use. These techniques are in fact the only resources available to volunteer campaigners who are defending themselves against an utter encroachment into their family lives, businesses and livelihoods.

With the precedent-setting decision on ABC’s “standing” in our court case last month, the way is now clear for other campaigns to set up along the lines of the legal crowd-funding model we have used; which means there really is a last resort for action when all other means of representation fail us.

What does the article have to say about ABC?

Tom Ingall’s opening statement is exactly the realisation that inspired the creation of ABC – our decision to focus on crowd-sourced research, cross-platform publishing and investigative ‘citizen journalism’:

“Anyone with a smartphone in their pocket has the tools to be a multimedia journalist. More importantly, they also have the power of a publisher.”

ABC has been working in this way since May 2016 – taking great inspiration from David Boyle, who back in June 2016 wrote an entire ebook on the Southern Rail crisis in the space of a week! If you haven’t read it, we strongly recommend downloading ‘Cancelled: The strange, disturbing story of the crisis at Southern Rail’ here.

David Boyle called for ‘proper investigative journalism’ on Southern Rail at the time – and we took him very seriously; beginning a year long experiment on a crowd-sourced version of ‘proper investigative journalism’ that would empower commuters when all other channels of representation failed us.

As Tom Ingall notes in the article, ABC has excelled in the “nimble use of platforms”, including: Twitter hashtags (which act like beacons across Twitter, helping us grow our audience by the day); our ABC Facebook group (which has brought people together to organise, support each other and share research); Periscope (live broadcasts of our protests, which have allowed those unable to attend events to fully engage); and Thunderclaps (an instant viral strategy that helped us reach over a quarter of a million people at the time of our December protest at the DfT). Tom also features the results of our ABC Passenger Survey prominently in the article, which highlight the staggering effect on lives and livelihoods caused by the ongoing Southern Rail crisis.

Campaign for Better Transport’s Stephen Joseph OBE comments on ABC’s innovative crowd-sourced model:

We were delighted to read a response from Stephen Joseph OBE at the end of the article, where he highlights a few points from which to take Tom Ingall’s excellent analysis forward. Stephen calls for a truly progressive view of the possibilities of properly including passengers in the discussion. He praises the work of ABC’s network in discovering weaknesses within the current system – in particular the work of Danny Jeremiah in proposing a solution to fix the user experience of ticket machines and ensure that we can easily access the cheapest fares.

Stephen Joseph has been an advocate of our methods since 2016, when he predicted that “rail operators will have to deal in future with a new type of passenger lobby group organised by young professionals who are adept at using social media”.

We are honoured to include several long-standing passenger and disability rights campaigns in our network, including Campaign for Better Transport, the Foundation for Integrated Transport, Fair Fares Now, Transport for All and Bring Back British Rail; as well as dozens of regional commuter groups across London and the South.

Please help us to continue our work!

The entire strength of our campaign relies on keeping it independently funded, and we desperately need your help. Donating to help us pay our lawyers for our recent high court victory will also allow us to continue bringing you the best coverage and analysis of what’s really going on behind the scenes of Southern Rail; including many more exclusive publications!

Within the last month alone, we have leaked information from the Gibb report, as well as the complete version of a buried Rail Delivery Group report arguing for Conductors to remain on trains. Both reports were officially published within the same week as each of our leaks; and our recent high court decision has now forced Chris Grayling to decide on Southern Rail’s contractual breaches by 13th July.

From the point of view of ABC’s dedicated campaigners, we are only just getting started. We are determined to focus all our efforts on campaigning for truth, justice and compensation for all commuters as our volunteer organisation spreads around the country.

We are urgently seeking funds to pay our lawyers and to keep ABC going! Please donate whatever you can.

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXCLUSIVE: Full report of ABC’s legal victory, which forces Chris Grayling to decide Southern Rail breaches

Thursday’s court decision was neither an outright win nor a loss for ABC. But, it was most certainly a valuable outcome; which now forms an urgent judicial/political pressure on the Transport Minister.

Much of the newspaper reporting (and DfT press release) on our case has been a little confused; so we now publish the first clear and accurate analysis of the legal situation. Please accept our apologies for not publishing sooner – ABC is volunteer-run by passengers alongside our day jobs, campaigning and daily commuting nightmare; and with the court case and a visit to Parliament we have been extremely busy!

So, what exactly happened on Thursday?

The most important thing to know is that the premise of our entire judicial review application was our first ground:Delay“. This refers to our argument that the 14 months the DfT has spent deliberating on Southern Rail’s contractual breaches is an “unreasonable delay” – an argument, in other words, for the right of commuters to demand scrutiny of an essential public service in a timely manner.

On Thursday 29th June, the Judge agreed with this principle and gave the Transport Minister Chris Grayling two weeks to produce a final decision on Southern Rail’s defense for its breaches (force majeure). He must now inform GTR of his final decision by 13th July, or permission for our judicial review will automatically be granted.

Though the DfT’s line in the press is that our case was “thrown out of court”, it is clear that this was a significant legal victory, or it would not now form an urgent political pressure on the government; as demonstrated at the Southern Rail Parliamentary debate yesterday.

We will now wait until the 13th July to see if Chris Grayling complies with the Judge’s order – if he does not, our judicial review will go forward.

Why was our case a significant legal victory?

In addition to forcing the Transport Minister to make a final decision on force majeure by 13th July, our case represents a precedent-setting ruling for public interest in contracts between government departments and private companies. There are two outcomes here that should be of great interest to campaigners; as well as equality and human rights lawyers:

  1. It is at least arguable that there is a public law duty owed to the public by the Secretary of State that franchise agreements are enforced in a reasonable manner (in addition to any contractual or statutory enforcement obligations). Further, Mr Justice Ouseley commented that it was ‘perfectly obvious’ that the provision of public transport through an effective franchise system was undertaken for the purpose of providing a public service.
  2. It is at least arguable that where a public body issues a policy document (the enforcement policy) it must be implied that decisions taken under that policy must be made in a reasonable time and cannot be left until “kingdom come”. Mr Justice Ouseley said “there is an implied obligation to reach decisions in a reasonable time in all the circumstances of the case.”

The Highlights:

The Judge had little patience for the DfT’s argument that this area of law was “not the business of the public” and did not entertain his argument that decisions regarding the relationship between the DfT and GTR “do not have any direct effect on anyone else.”

Best of all, the judge dismissed out of hand the DfT’s claim that the 1,500 commuters who have funded our court case “do not have standing” or “lack interest” in the matter. This in itself is incredibly significant, as the DfT had shamelessly implied in written communication that our non-profit organisation (established at the peak of the Southern Rail crisis last year) was not a ‘respectable’ enough organisation.

Thus, ABC’s judicial review case represents a new legal crowdfunding model that is capable of forcing the government to be accountable to the public when all other democratic mechanisms fail. The Judge did not hesitate to accept our “standing”, and this suggests that campaigns like ours can be even more successful in pressuring government policy in future.

Our Equality Act argument will not go forward, due to a technicality

On this topic, there is one very important clarification to make. The Equality Act challenge involved with this judicial review had nothing whatsoever to do with our ongoing campaigning efforts on driver only operation (DOO); regarding the equality of access breaches occurring at rural and unstaffed stations. Any report of this in the rail media is an error and we will be asking for corrections.

The Equality part of our case was formed of three smaller grounds arising from the first on “Delay” – namely that the DfT’s failure to act on GTR’s breaches of benchmarks throughout 2016 resulted in breaches of the Equality Act on Southern Rail. That is to say, that the extreme overcrowding resulting from these contractual breaches had a discriminatory effect on disabled people attempting to use the railway at that time. Of these three grounds, only one was discussed in court and it was rejected on a technicality.

Is it true that an Equality Act challenge on DOO is still “inevitable”?

It is absolutely still the case that our legal advice from Devonshires (and that of several other pro bono lawyers) is that an Equality Act challenge on DOO is inevitable; and extremely likely to be successful.

Anyone in doubt of this opinion might like to read the original leaked version of the 2-year buried Rail Delivery Group report on disabled access, released exclusively on this blog last week. Ironically, this vital report on disabled access gives us yet another piece of encouraging legal advice on the matter: namely, that an Equality Act challenge on DOO is “highly likely” and (upon success) “likely” to force a change to government policy.

The buried document has since been published by the Rail Delivery Group, yet this controversial report – arguing that Conductors are the best source of assistance for disabled people – has received very little press coverage. Nor have we heard any explanation from the Rail Delivery Group as to why it was suppressed for so long, and why nobody even knew of its existence. The reason for its suppression is almost certainly the strength of its arguments for the full staffing of trains and stations; and its obvious opposition to “clear trends” of destaffing arising from the McNulty report.

Major disability charities have already responded with shock at the suppression of this document, and we have made clear to several of our disabled friends and members that ABC will support them as much as we can on any legal action they plan to take forward. On this issue, we repeat (for what seems like the hundredth time) that these failures of access occur regularly on Southern Rail, due to there being no second staff member on trains for which disabled people have pre-booked assistance.

We are still urgently crowdfunding to pay our brilliant lawyers, and urgently need to get to £15,000 by 18th July. Please donate whatever you can to help us!

 

Major disability charities congratulate ABC on leaking long-buried Rail Delivery Group report

Things are busier than ever for ABC, with our legal action against the Department for Transport taking place tomorrow, and numerous investigative publications underway. Today, we are honoured to say that our partner campaigns in disability rights have publicly congratulated us for our work so far.

ABC is now urgently crowdfunding for our legal action on government accountability and disability rights on Southern Rail.

We are due in court tomorrow, and will be informing you of the exact time later this afternoon, as soon as it is confirmed by the court. In the meantime, leading disability charities have written to us with their strong reactions to our recent revelation of a buried Rail Delivery Group report on rail accessibility.

Our application for a judicial review of the government’s handling of the failed Southern Rail contract has the support and backing of Transport for All, who seek to contribute numerous witness reports and expert testimony to our legal case.

  • Catherine Smith, Campaigns and Outreach Officer for Transport for All, said:

“It’s shocking that this damning report was hidden from the public for so long.

“At Transport for All we hear daily from Disabled people who experience discrimination on our railways – it’s truly shameful that the industry would knowingly push ahead with plans that will lock Disabled and older people out of our rail network.”

We have also received valuable input from Muscular Dystrophy UK, and thank their CEO Robert Meadowcroft for his words of support today:

  • Robert Meadowcroft, Chief Executive of Muscular Dystrophy UK, said:

“We congratulate ABC’s dedicated efforts to tackle the discrimination experienced by disabled rail commuters and are pleased to know that Trailblazers were able to feed in to this great work.

“The report they published yesterday highlights how the government are actively placing disabled people at a great disadvantage by pressing forward with their plans to run driver-only operated trains. Public transport journeys for disabled people are already difficult, being nearly five times longer, more expensive and more stressful than they are for non-disabled people.  

“Train companies often require wheelchair users to book assistance in advance, with 24 hours’ notice; yet we know of many stories, of people with muscular dystrophy failing to receive their pre-booked assistance and being left stranded for hours on end.

“Given that disabled commuters already struggle to get the assistance they need, driver-only operated trains will only make this worse.

“The government and transport companies need to put accessibility at the heart of future design and provision of services, including improving the turn-up-and-go system.

“It is clear, these issues need to be resolved as matter of urgency, before another efficiency plan is put into place.”

Please urgently help us raise essential funds to pay our ongoing legal bills!

Please follow ABC on Facebook and Twitter for more exclusive news and updates.